tactical alpine medicine

A keyword within Mountain Rescue Tyrol that stands for a special philosophy of medical care for injured persons in alpine accidents.
Tactical Alpine Medicine (TAM) has been the basis for medical training of Mountain Rescue Tyrol since 2015.

Inspired by the medical care provided by the military, this was adapted to the conditions in the Alps. The challenge of caring for injured people in alpine terrain is a complex one. Patients are often seriously injured and are in danger zones. In order to ensure that care is provided quickly and adapted to the danger zone, guidelines have been developed that enable care to be adapted to the situation and the degree of injury while maintaining the greatest possible safety for the emergency services.

In addition to tactics, this theory is also about minimising materials and actions to the bare essentials.

Tactical alpine medicine is rounded off with scientific research on alpine care.



SIMPLE, SAFE, EFFICIENT - The majority of mountain rescuers are just mountaineers, but not doctors or emergency paramedics. Nevertheless, every one of them must be able to provide the best possible care for a victim.

Based on the model of tactical alpine medicine, a three-stage system was created for training to become an alpine medic. An alpine medic has extended knowledge and skills in the care of casualties in alpine accidents and in first aid.

The basic training, known as Alpin-Medic 1, is completed as part of the basic courses. The advanced courses Alpin-Medic-Summer and Alpin-Medic-Winter represent levels 2 and 3. After completing these courses, the mountain rescuer receives the additional qualification Alpine Medic.

mountain rescue-
doctors &
emergency paramedics


The injury pattern of the casualties often exceeds the medically applicable scope of a mountain rescuer. This is when the mountain rescue doctors and emergency paramedics are needed.

In addition to the Alpine-Medic system, Mountain Rescue Tyrol has numerous doctors and paramedics (both paramedics and emergency paramedics) working at its local offices.

Fully trained mountain rescuers, who are active emergency doctors, also form the so-called task force physicians.


In emergencies where an emergency doctor is needed but the emergency helicopter cannot fly due to the weather or darkness, these doctors are called in. The doctors have emergency medical equipment and, as trained mountain rescuers, are very familiar with the alpine conditions. Mountain Rescue Tyrol has 50 doctors who can be called out as mountain rescue doctors.

These rescue team doctors also demonstrate their strong training during various natural disasters, such as the massive snowfalls in East Tyrol, where the mountain rescue doctors have already provided medical care in the cut-off valleys on several occasions.


Our paramedics and emergency paramedics have also become an integral part of Mountain Rescue Tyrol and are another pillar of medical care. The Paramedics Law requires that the competences of paramedics and emergency paramedics also apply to mountain rescue services. There are also medication lists for emergency paramedics, which are approved by the regional doctors and therefore enable emergency paramedics to provide extended medical care for emergency patients and thus shorten the treatment-free interval.


THE crisis intervention team FOR MOUNTAIN RESCUERS

Falls from great heights, vehicle crashes, rock and snow avalanches often leave victims in an unspeakable state. Images that imprint and often only disappear again with professional help.

Peers are mountain rescuers who act as contact persons for mountain rescuers who have been confronted with emotionally stressful situations in the mountain rescue service. In 2022, the selection and training of these peers began at Mountain Rescue Tyrol in close cooperation with the ÖRK Tyrol crisis intervention team. The peer system is organisationally assigned to the Medical Department but works as an independent group within Mountain Rescue Tyrol in order to be able to provide the greatest possible discretion and professional and independent psychological first aid. In future, it should be possible to offer this peer service to every mountain rescuer at a very low threshold.